Mac keyboard shortcuts

By pressing certain key combinations, you can do things that normally need a mouse, trackpad, or other input device.

To use a keyboard shortcut, press and hold one or more modifier keys and then press the last key of the shortcut. For example, to use Command-C (copy), press and hold the Command key, then the C key, then release both keys. Mac menus and keyboards often use symbols for certain keys, including modifier keys:

  • Command (or Cmd) ⌘

  • Shift ⇧

  • Option (or Alt) ⌥

  • Control (or Ctrl) ⌃

  • Caps Lock ⇪

  • Fn

On keyboards made for Windows PCs, use the Alt key instead of Option, and the Windows logo key instead of Command.

Some keys on some Apple keyboards have special symbols and functions, such as for display brightness , keyboard brightness , Mission Control, and more. If these functions aren't available on your keyboard, you might be able to reproduce some of them by creating your own keyboard shortcuts. To use these keys as F1, F2, F3, or other standard function keys, combine them with the Fn key.

Cut, copy, paste, and other common shortcuts

  • Command-X: Cut the selected item and copy it to the Clipboard.

  • Command-C: Copy the selected item to the Clipboard. This also works for files in the Finder.

  • Command-V: Paste the contents of the Clipboard into the current document or app. This also works for files in the Finder.

  • Command-Z: Undo the previous command. You can then press Shift-Command-Z to Redo, reversing the undo command. In some apps, you can undo and redo multiple commands.

  • Command-A: Select All items.

  • Command-F: Find items in a document or open a Find window.

  • Command-G: Find Again: Find the next occurrence of the item previously found. To find the previous occurrence, press Shift-Command-G.

  • Command-H: Hide the windows of the front app. To view the front app but hide all other apps, press Option-Command-H.

  • Command-M: Minimize the front window to the Dock. To minimize all windows of the front app, press Option-Command-M.

  • Command-O: Open the selected item, or open a dialog to select a file to open.

  • Command-P: Print the current document.

  • Command-S: Save the current document.

  • Command-T: Open a new tab.

  • Command-W: Close the front window. To close all windows of the app, press Option-Command-W.

  • Option-Command-EscForce quit an app.

  • Command–Space bar: Show or hide the Spotlight search field. To perform a Spotlight search from a Finder window, press Command–Option–Space bar. (If you use multiple input sources to type in different languages, these shortcuts change input sources instead of showing Spotlight. Learn how to change a conflicting keyboard shortcut.)

  • Control–Command–Space bar: Show the Character Viewer, from which you can choose emoji and other symbols.

  • Control-Command-F: Use the app in full screen, if supported by the app.

  • Space bar: Use Quick Look to preview the selected item.

  • Command-Tab: Switch to the next most recently used app among your open apps. 

  • Shift-Command-3: Take a screenshot of the entire screen. Learn more screenshot shortcuts.

  • Shift-Command-4: Take a screenshot of part of the screen you select

  • Shift-Command-N: Create a new folder in the Finder.

  • Command-Comma (,): Open preferences for the front app.